Recent post

How to live with bad teeth

 How to live with bad teeth


Method 1: Regain self-confidence



Remember that your teeth are not ugly

Despite what you may think, there are some people with more damaged teeth than yours. You may have a problem with your teeth - crooked teeth, a gap between your upper and lower teeth, or discoloration - that you think is so obvious and ugly that no one wants to look at you. This is usually not the case. You look at your teeth every day and see every imperfection, whereas most people pay little attention to them and are therefore never likely to see the defects you see.

  • Even if they notice it, most of them don't pay attention to it. Few people have perfect teeth.

Smile in all circumstances. 



Even if you are embarrassed to show them, you should be proud of your teeth. Have confidence in yourself, smile sincerely, and you will see that no one will pay attention to things like bad teeth. Confidence and a smile make a good impression, no matter what the condition of your teeth.

  • Practice smiling confidently in front of the mirror.

Do not draw attention to your mouth.

 If you're really afraid that people will see your teeth, try not to draw too much attention to your mouth. Don't wear shiny, greasy lipstick or lip pencil because they draw the outside eye directly to your mouth. Instead, wear clear lip gloss or lip balm. This will make your lips look normal and discreet.

  • You should avoid placing your hands next to your mouth or chewing your nails. If you do, people will look at your mouth and teeth, which is certainly not what you are looking for.

Draw attention to your eyes. 

If you're worried that people are paying too much attention to your teeth, try drawing them to another part of your face. Try mascara or light eye shadow if you wear makeup. If you don't wear makeup, wear a nice pair of glasses to draw attention to your eyes rather than your teeth.

  • Be expressive with your eyes, especially when you smile. Using your eyes to show your emotions not only makes your smile warmer and more engaging, it also draws attention away from your teeth

Draw attention to other aspects of your personality. 

If your teeth are not your best feature, try to draw attention to other aspects of your personality that you like. This way, you're focusing on the parts of your body that you're not ashamed of rather than your teeth. If you like jewelry, choose earrings that are attractive, sparkly or shimmering. They will effectively distract people's eyes from your teeths.
  • Wear more accessories. Choose a new hat, try on a new bracelet or cuff, wear a nice pair of shoes or opt for an attractive necklace. People will see how stylish you are and won't care about your teeth.
  • Get a new haircut. Look stylish with an innovative cut or a bolder color to draw attention to your hair. Of course, you can try trendy cuts.

Smile without showing your teeth. 



If you continue to worry about your teeth, you can pretend to trust yourself by smiling without showing your teeth. Many people smile like this anyway: there will be nothing extraordinary if you do the same. You will look beautiful and friendly without having to show your teeth.
  • Practice smiling in different ways in the mirror. Also try to smile by opening your mouth slightly or wide to see what looks best on you and what makes you look natural.
  • Look at old photos of yourself smiling and look for the smile you like the most.

Method 2: Improve the appearance of teeth

Try a tooth whitening product. 

If your problem is simply that your teeth are not white enough, you have the option of using whitening products to solve this problem. You will regain your self-confidence and no longer be afraid to smile, even if you have other dental problems[4] . You can try a variety of whitening products. However, the most accessible and best to start with is whitening toothpaste. This type of product is easy to use because it is used just like any other toothpaste.
  • You can also try whitening gels. The gels are sold with trays to attach the product to the teeth. However, they are more expensive, especially if you buy custom-made trays made by a dentist.
  • Whitening strips are another solution that you can try. They stick to your teeth to whiten them. They are quite expensive and you may need to use them several times. This makes them more expensive.
  • If you want optimal whitening, you can try the whitening treatments offered by your dentist.

Brush your teeth. 

Something as simple as brushing your teeth twice a day helps your overall dental health and builds confidence. Brushing improves the regularity of your teeth if they are not straight. It also keeps them healthy and makes it easier to care for more complex dental problems.

  • Choose a fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride toothpaste is more effective than non-fluoride toothpaste in preventing cavities

Use dental floss.

 Brushing is not the only care possible. You also have the option of using dental floss, either regular floss or a toothpick with floss. Flossing will help you remove bacteria, plaque and foods that have not been removed by the toothbrush. It will make your teeth healthier and more beautiful.

  • Mouthwashes will help you maintain your teeth and restore your confidence when you smile. In addition, it will remove bacteria and give you fresher breath.


Eat less sugar. 

Too much sugar in the diet can cause cavities. Every time you eat sugar, an acid is formed that can damage your teeth. Rather than eating a lot of sugar in short intervals, try to limit your intake to one sugar every four or five hours. This will give your teeth time to recover before the extra sugar gets into your mouth.

  • Beware of hidden sugars in soft drinks, juices and products labelled "no sugar added". All of these products contain sugar that can damage your teeth. Instead, look for low-fat drinks, sugar-free products or natural sweeteners. These won't damage your teeth and help protect them.

  • You don't need to stop using sugar permanently. Just reduce your daily intake.

  • Eat sugar-free treats if you can't reduce the amount of sugar in your diet.

Avoid activities that are harmful to your teeth.

 There are different activities and habits that can worsen the condition of your teeth. For example, you must stop smoking because cigarettes stain your teeth. The same goes for coffee, dark colored soda, tea and red wine, which also stain your teeth. So try to drink less each day.

  • If you really like dark drinks, drink them through a straw to reduce the risk of staining.

  • A dry mouth can lead to cavities. So keep your mouth moist by drinking more water or chewing sugarless gum.

Method 3: Call on a professional

Consult your dentist. 

If your teeth are a serious problem that affects your lifestyle, you need to find a solution. See your dentist to talk to him or her about possible solutions for your particular situation. He or she can help you with professional tooth cleaning, whitening, placing aligners to keep teeth white and healthy, repairing broken teeth, replacing missing teeth, or placing veneers to cover discolored, bored or irregular teeth.

  • If you are concerned about the cost of dental care, you can get treatment at a lower cost at dental schools or local care programs. Many online sites will help you find more affordable dental care near you.

  • You should see a dentist every six months to keep your teeth healthy and perfect.

Consult an orthodontist. 

If you are concerned about your misaligned or irregular teeth, you should see an orthodontist. An orthodontist can help you correct any misalignment of your teeth, and even if the treatment is expensive, the orthodontist can help you find a solution to your problems: braces, aligners or retainers.

  • You will probably need a referral to an orthodontist. Ask your dentist if he or she can refer you to a professional near you.

Consult a psychologist. 

If you've tried different solutions to live better with your teeth, but nothing works, you probably have an underlying problem with your self-esteem. This problem may not be limited to your teeth alone. A psychologist or counsellor can help you deal with the social anxiety you feel about your teeth. He or she can also help you with your fear of going to the dentist or undergoing dental treatment.

  • See a psychologist with whom you are comfortable. You need to feel comfortable talking about your fears and concerns without feeling stupid or shy.

What Can People Do To Protect Themselves Against Rabies

 What Can People Do Protect Themselves Against Rabies

Any warm-blooded animal can transmit rabies, but humans are usually infected by dogs. Rabies can be fatal if symptoms are not known, but it can also be easily prevented if proper measures are taken. Vaccination and proper management of stray dogs and cats have eradicated rabies in most countries.

METHOD 1: Avoid rabies in humans and pets



Get your pets vaccinated.

Pets are the most common way to get rabies. Vaccinating your dogs, cats, and ferrets is the most important thing you can do to protect yourself and your four legs. Take your pets to the veterinarian and get them vaccinated right away.



Keep an eye on your pets when they are outside.

 Don't let them approach wild animals. Mammals such as squirrels, raccoons, weasels, and bats can carry rabies and transmit it to dogs, cats, and ferrets by biting them. Keep your pets on a leash or behind a pen to prevent this.

  • This is why veterinary health authorities recommend keeping cats and ferrets in your home or within your property limits at all times.
  • Check with the appropriate authorities beforehand to find out if there are cases of rabies in your area if you want to let your dog run in a natural area.

Reduce the stray animal population in your neighborhood. 

Call the SPA in your township to recover stray animals. Get your pets neutered or spayed. This can reduce the number of unwanted animals that may not be vaccinated.

  • Make sure your children know not to touch any stray animal, whether wild or domestic.

Don't worry about wild animals.

 Don't touch, feed, or attract wildlife to your home. Don't adopt a wild animal. You will be more likely to get rabies if you and your pets live with wild animals.

  • Do not come into contact with wild animals when traveling, especially dogs in developing countries.
  • Do not seek treatment for a sick or injured wild animal. Call the SPCA or a veterinarian.
  • Take steps to prevent bats from entering living areas such as homes, schools, or workplaces where they might come into contact with humans or pets.

Be vigilant when you are abroad. 

Rabies is still endemic in some countries. Check with your doctor, health organization, or local health insurance office before you go abroad. Ask what the risks of rabies are, what you need to do to protect yourself, or if you are bitten and infected with the virus.

METHOD  2: Manage possible contamination



Get a health professional check-up immediately if you are bitten.

 Contact a doctor immediately if you have been bitten by a wild animal or any animal that could be a carrier of the disease. Take him to the vet right away if your pet has been bitten. You will give the virus time to spread if you wait even for a day.



In the meantime, treat the bite. 

If you cannot get medical help for several hours, you must take steps to clean the wound.

  • Wash the bite with soap and water. According to the World Health Organization, the most effective protective mechanism is to wash the area affected by rabies contamination with detergent.
  • Put ethanol or iodine solution on the wound. These antiseptics work by killing sensitive bacteria.

Go to the hospital and get vaccinated.

If you have never been vaccinated against rabies, the doctor will give you an immunizing product, which helps prevent the rabies virus from spreading from the bite. In any case, you will need to be given booster shots.

  • A person with rabies who has never been vaccinated should receive a vaccine containing four times the usual immunizing dose, with booster shots on days three, seven, and fourteen. You may also be given another broader-spectrum immunizer with your first vaccine.
  • You will receive an injection of twice the usual dose if you have already been vaccinated and a booster shot three days later.

Advice

  • See a veterinarian immediately in case your pet has been bitten by a wild animal.
  • Rabies is quite common in some developing countries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Dogs are the most common carriers of rabies in these countries. Raccoons are the most common carriers of rabies in North America.
  • Do not assume that you are protected if you have been bitten by a pet. The owner of that animal may not be up-to-date with the vaccination records of all four legs.
  • Stay away from stray animals. They may not be vaccinated and may carry the rabies virus.
  • "Take care of your pets and leave others alone" is a good principle to teach children.
  • Cases of rabies are extremely rare in France, but you can go to Hawaii, the only American state totally free of rabies, if you absolutely want to avoid it.

Warnings

  • Children should always tell their parents if they have been bitten.
  • Rabies is extremely dangerous to humans and can be fatal if not treated in time.

How to stop stammering

 How to stop stammering

Stammering is a speech disorder that is characterized by interruptions and pauses that affect the flow of speech. Words may be repeated or prolonged, and sometimes followed by physical exertion such as rapid eyelid flapping or trembling lips. Stammering can affect all age groups, although it usually occurs in boys.

Limit the effects of Stammering 



Consult a doctor or a speech therapist. 

Speech and language therapists and health care professionals can help you or your child reduce the effects of stuttering. This disorder is best treated as early as possible, as it may be difficult to treat later. If you notice any of the following symptoms of stuttering, contact your doctor:
  • stuttering that develops in adulthood
  • muscle contractions or visible difficulties in speaking
  • if your stuttering affects your professional and social life and your living environment
  • any stuttering that leads to fear, anxiety or loss of self-esteem must be treated
  • a stutter that has lasted for more than six months
  • if the stuttering occurs in the same way as other speech disorders
  • if you notice that your or your child's stuttering is getting worse

Practice to check your language ability. 

Speaking quickly or in a hurry can affect the number of times you will stutter during a conversation. By speaking calmly and slowly, a person can know exactly what causes stuttering and when it happens.
  • Speak simply and slowly. Try to pronounce monosyllabic words one after the other. Make an effort to pronounce each word clearly before moving on to the next word.
  • Control your language as you speak. Looking for words or mental states can cause stuttering or make it worse.
  • Don't be afraid to take pauses or silence when you speak. Move at your own pace as you practice.
  • Practice the words that are causing you problems.
  • Gradually increase the length of sentences and words. Over time, you will work to insert difficult words into your language.

Ask your doctor for advice on electronic devices to reduce stuttering.



 Today, there are two types of devices that can help you cope with stuttering problems. Some of these devices are small and can be worn throughout the day.

  • One of the devices plays your voice back into your ear, but at a slow pace. This slowness causes you to slow down your speech, which helps to reduce stuttering.
  • The other method consists of putting your voice in unison with that of your audience. Hearing your own words in this way can also help reduce stuttering.

Consult a specialist in cognitive-behavioural therapy.

 By applying the exercises and techniques of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, a stutterer can learn the mental conditions that may be at the root of the stuttering problem. Another benefit of this treatment is that it can help reduce the stress, anxiety or self-esteem problems that can arise from stuttering.


Relax when you talk.

 Taking your time and saying what you have to say can help reduce the effects of stuttering. Take your time when you speak and try to be as calm as possible.
  • Don't always change your words or what you want to say.
  • Take your time and say the words you want to say.
  • Relaxing and reducing the anxiety of speaking can reduce your stuttering.
  • Don't force yourself to say your words. Instead, say them at your own pace. If you force your words, you will find it hard to say them.



Discover the main causes of your stuttering.

 There are three known causes of stuttering today. The two main ones are genetic and neurological. The third, and rarest, is psychogenic.
  • Genetic stuttering occurs very early in children when they learn to speak. The majority of children show some level of stuttering as they grow up, but this problem will persist in others. There is also evidence that this type of stuttering is genetic and may be hereditary.
  • Neurological stuttering, on the other hand, can occur after serious medical problems such as head trauma or stroke. The connections between the language areas of the brain and the muscles that are used when you speak are disconnected and weakened.
  • Psychogenic stuttering is caused by exposure to an emotionally traumatic event.

Talk with a stutterer



Don't finish the stutterer's sentences. 

When talking to a stutterer, you may be tempted to finish a sentence for him or her. This can be very frustrating. Avoid interrupting or finishing what you think the stutterer is about to say.



Stay calm.

 When talking with a child or adult who stutters, make sure the discussion is calm and relaxed, which can be very helpful. Talking softly without being rushed can help both of you communicate without pressure, while at the same time reducing the effects of stuttering.

Participate actively in a discussion.

 When talking with a stutterer, give him/her the same attention and care as you would in any conversation. Focus on the speaker, make real eye contact, and demonstrate good listening skills as he or she speaks.

  • Do not assume that you already know what he or she means and do not assume that it is important.

Accept children who stutter and praise them.

 If you speak with a child who stutters, never criticize or be frustrated by their stuttering. Treating a stutterer poorly will only lead to problems with confidence and self-esteem development.
  •  Praise children who stutter when they speak clearly. Do not criticize or punish them when they stutter.
  • Accept them as they are by providing support and encouragement.

Ways to Boost Your Fertility

 Ways to Boost Your Fertility

If you are considering improving your fertility, you will need to consider several lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking or drinking alcohol and eating a balanced diet. Men who are considering getting more fertile sperm and women who wish to have children may need to improve their fertility by adapting their diet. However, dietary adaptations must be accompanied by fertility treatments to generally improve fertility.

Understanding the scientific basis of a fertility diet



Note that having a healthy and balanced diet does not guarantee better fertility. 

There is a plethora of books and online resources that claim that adopting a more balanced and healthy diet can improve fertility. While it is beneficial to have a healthy diet, it should not be used as a substitute for other fertility treatments and options. However, a healthy diet and lifestyle can reduce a woman's risk of oligomenorrhea and may increase her chances of becoming pregnant.

Be aware that fertility diets only work for a small number of women.

 During the scientific study of these diets, the tests conducted focused on a particular disease found in women: impaired ovulation or oligomenorrhea. Women suffering from this disease can benefit from dietary adaptations to try to get pregnant.

    For example, a study was conducted over an eight-year period by the Nurses' Health Study with more than 18,000 women who were trying to get pregnant. Only 400 of the women had infertility, caused by oligomenorrhea. Therefore, the Diet and Fertility Study was actually conducted on a small number of women among the subjects and may not apply to women who do not have irregular cycles.


    Inform your doctor about your treatment choices.

    Before testing a fertility diet, talk to your doctor about other treatment options for infertility or fertility problems. Several certified medical procedures will help you get pregnant, as well as other options that will increase your chances of getting pregnant.

    • Your body may respond perfectly to fertility medications, which will help regulate your ovulation cycle. Your doctor may also suggest intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, embryo testing, or reproductive immunology.

    Adapt your diet


    Maintain a good weight balance. If you are under or overweight.

     your natural hormone levels may be altered and this can lead to suppression or irregularity of the ovulation cycle. Focus on maintaining a healthy weight, taking into account your body type and size.

    • If you suffer from health problems such as thyroid disease, let your doctor know your treatment options. Try to avoid unnecessary weight gain to prevent oligomenorrhea.
    • If you are overweight, losing just 5% of your body weight (about 5 kg if you weigh 90 kg) can increase blood flow to your reproductive organs and improve your fertility.

    If you have irregular cycles, take a folic acid supplement. 

    Folic acid is an essential nutrient for pregnant women and can increase your chances of getting pregnant if you have oligomenorrhea. However, follow only the prescribed dosage of folic acid and maintain a healthy weight to keep your cycle constant and regular.

    • One of the major studies of the effects of folic acid on women shows that taking folic acid supplements can lead to a high rate of fertilization and a high risk of having twins.
    • Folic acid supplements may also benefit men, as they can improve sperm quality.

    Lower your insulin levels by eating heart-healthy foods. 

    The level of insulin in your body can affect your sex hormone-related globulin. It can also affect the number of free androgens in your body if you are a woman. A high level of free androgen can prevent you from ovulating. Following this logic, a heart-healthy diet can lower your insulin levels and likely cause fertility to improve. Low insulin levels can also improve fertility in men, as it can affect the quality of their sperm. A heart-healthy diet is made up of these elements.

    • Low or no consumption of red meat. Women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study who consumed high levels of animal protein (such as red meat) had a 39% higher rate of ovulatory infertility than women who consumed low levels of animal protein. Some nutritionists also say that high animal protein consumption may affect sperm quality in men.
    • More beans, vegetables, nuts, and tempeh. Herbal proteins such as beans and other vegetables, tempeh, and nuts will give your body more iron and folic acid. These nutrients can help promote ovulation and embryonic development.
    • A small number of caloric dairy products. Generally, a heart-healthy diet requires a low intake of dairy products, but a small amount of lactose from cheese, yogurt, or milk can improve fertility. Subjects in the Nurses' Health Study who had one or two servings of fatty dairy products had better ovulation than those who consumed fat-free lactose. Some research shows that fat-free milk alters the balance of sex hormones in women, which may, in turn, affect their ovulation.

    Avoid trans-fatty acids. 

    Trans fatty acids are commonly found in packaged baked goods, fried foods, junk food, and some animal products, and can improve your body's ability to produce insulin. Having high insulin levels can lead to metabolic disorders that can also affect your ovulation.

    Consume more complex carbohydrates.

     Aim to eat complex carbohydrates that contain fiber such as vegetables, fruit, beans, and whole grains. Your body will take longer to digest complex carbohydrates so they have a more gradual effect on your insulin and blood glucose levels. Some studies have shown that women whose diets are low in complex carbohydrates such as cakes, cookies, white rice, and white bread are 92% more likely to have fertility problems than women whose diets are high in complex carbohydrates.



    Tips to avoid motion sickness

     Tips to avoid motion sickness

    Motion sickness can make you fear long trips. Motion sickness is a type of illness found in many people. It is particularly common in children between the ages of 2 and 12, pregnant women, and those who suffer from migraines, balance disorders, or psychosocial factors. Motion sickness is caused when the brain receives contradictory messages. These are called "movement indicators" and are emitted from the eyes and inner ear. The inner ear indicates that you are turning, turning, and moving. Your eyes believe that your body is stationary. The brain is disoriented, and that's what makes us sick.

    Trying non-medical remedies for motion sickness


    Try an acupressure bracelet.

     Acupressure bracelets are worn around the wrist and apply pressure to a point between the two tendons on the inside of your wrist. This method is based on traditional Chinese medicine and has been proven effective against motion sickness.
    • These bracelets are easily found in pharmacies.
    • Despite anecdotal evidence, there is little scientific evidence that they represent an effective treatment.

    Tranquilize the stomach with a light meal.

    A child may feel better if he or she has eaten a few salty cookies. It is not recommended to travel on an empty stomach if you suffer from motion sickness. Eat a light meal before you travel. A small, neutral snack is very suitable for the road.


    Avoid fats.

     You are more likely to feel nauseous if you eat high-fat foods. It's best to avoid it if you're going on a long car trip. Avoid large, heavy meals before and during the trip.

    • Il est également recommandé d’éviter les aliments épicés.
    • Boire de l’alcool avant de voyager peut également provoquer des nausées

    Try ginger. 

    Ginger products and supplements can help you avoid the symptoms of motion sickness. There is little scientific evidence that has demonstrated its effectiveness, but ginger has been used for a very long time to treat nausea.

    • You can take ginger tablets, or capsules.
    • You can try drinking ginger beer, or ginger tea.
    • Before taking ginger tablets, check that there are no contraindications with your current medical treatment.

    Modify your position and behaviour in the car


    Stay still.

     You have several techniques to help you manage motion sickness. Try to stay still in your seat. Press your head back against the seat to prevent it from moving around. You can use a pillow or headrest if you have one. The more you can keep your head still, the better you will feel.

    • If you can sit in the front of the car, do so.
    • Avoid rear-facing seats. 

    Fix your gaze. 

    To fight motion sickness, it's a good idea to stare at a stable object. Try looking out the window and staring at the horizon, or just close your eyes for a moment. Don't read or play games either, as this may make the symptoms worse.

    Open a window. 

    With proper ventilation in the car, this may help relieve the symptoms of motion sickness. By keeping a window open, you will also ensure that strong odors are ventilated.

    • Fresh air will also keep you from getting too hot in the car.
    • The air on your face can be very refreshing.

    Taking medication for motion sickness

    Consider going to see your doctor.

     If you are suffering from acute motion sickness, there are medications available that your doctor can prescribe. Go see your doctor and explain your symptoms. If you travel often, your doctor can encourage you to learn how to control your discomfort without medication.

    • There are many over-the-counter medications available, you can talk to your pharmacist before going to see your doctor.

    Try anti-motion sickness tablets.

     There are many medications available for motion sickness. They have significant side effects, and you should not take them if you are going to drive. Most of them are available over the counter. Your doctor or pharmacist may suggest the following medications.
    • Promethazine (Phenergan) comes in tablets that must be taken two hours before traveling, and its effects last 6 to 8 hours.
    • Cyclizine (Marezine) is not recommended for children under 6 years of age. It should be taken at least 30 minutes before traveling.
    • Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) should be taken every 4 to 8 hours.
    • Meclizine (Bonine) is not recommended for children under 12 years of age, and should be taken one hour before traveling 

    Try Scopolamine (Hyoscine) patches. 

    These patches are commonly used to fight motion sickness. They are available over-the-counter in pharmacies, and are most effective for long trips, such as sea travel. You can apply a patch behind the ear and it will work for up to 72 hours before you need to replace it.
    • The most common side effects are drowsiness, blurred vision and dizziness.
    • You should be careful before using these patches with children, the elderly, and people with epilepsy, heart, liver, or kidney problems.

    Try antihistamines. 

    In some cases, taking antihistamines can help control nausea and vomiting. They are less effective than more specialized medications but have fewer side effects. Antihistamines should be taken an hour or two before travel.
    18] Antihistamines can cause drowsiness, but if you are a passenger on a long trip, being drowsy may be an advantage.
    Antihistamines without drowsiness do not appear to be effective.

    Heartburn in 10 questions

     Heartburn in 10 questions

    As unpleasant as it is frequent, heartburn can sometimes ruin your daily routine. What causes heartburn? How can you avoid it? What are the treatments? To take stock, Doctissimo answers the 10 most frequent questions.

    What is heartburn?

    Heartburn, or epigastric heartburn, is defined by a feeling of bitterness or acidity localized in the stomach. This pain often occurs after meals or while lying down. They can also occur after eating certain acidic or fatty foods.

    What is pyrosis?

    Unlike heartburn, which is limited to the gastric sac, pyrosis is characterized by ascending heartburn from the stomach. This sensation is accompanied by acid reflux to the esophagus, which can sometimes reach the throat or even the mouth, leaving an impression of acid burning.

    What is gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD?

    45% of the French population would be affected by gastroesophageal reflux disease. They occur when part of the stomach contents passes into the esophagus. They are considered pathological if they alter the patient's life or if they lead to lesions in the esophagus. This is because stomach secretions are very acidic and can cause real heartburn along the way.

    What is a hiatus hernia?

    Normally, the stomach is below the diaphragm, with the breathing muscle separating the abdomen from the chest. This muscle is pierced to allow the passage of the esophagus, which connects the mouth to the stomach. However, sometimes this orifice widens, allowing the upper part of the stomach to rise to the level of the thorax: this is a hiatus hernia.


    What causes heartburn?

    Heartburn can have many causes:

    • Some medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, inhibit cyclo-oxygenase. This enzyme controls the secretion of mucus and bicarbonates, which are the main protective factors of the stomach;
    • Burns can also be the manifestation of motor disturbances in the digestive tract or a consequence of GERD.
    When such burns occur for the first time and persist, it is advisable to consult a doctor. Only he or she will be able to tell the difference and reassure you.

    What factors contribute to heartburn?

    Certain foods can promote heartburn, such as fatty foods, citrus fruits, sodas, raw vegetables, coffee, fruit, and spicy foods.
    It is also advisable to avoid heavy meals or to go to bed right after eating. Finally, tobacco and alcohol, which stimulate acidic gastric secretions, should be avoided.

    When should I see a doctor?

    If the burns are only episodic, there is no need to consult. However, if they affect the patient's quality of life or if they become too frequent (more than twice a week), then a doctor should be consulted. Other signs may also alert the patient: burns that occur after the age of 50, bleeding, weight loss or loss of appetite.

    How is heartburn treated?

    For episodic burns, simple antacids are enough to effectively relieve pain; 
    If the pain persists, your doctor may consider treatment with anti-secretory agents, such as proton pump inhibitors, which block the gastric secretions that cause the burns.

    What should I eat when I suffer from heartburn?

    Apart from certain categories of foods that can aggravate burns: alcohol, fatty foods, acids, sodas, raw vegetables; there is no general rule to follow, apart from splitting one's meals. Each person being unique, it is best to favor foods that do not cause these burns and to rule out the others empirically. Most often, you can focus on lean meats, fish, eggs, but also cereals and foods rich in fiber.

     Is heartburn dangerous?

    Although embarrassing and unpleasant, heartburn is not harmful to your health. However, if it becomes too frequent, a doctor should be consulted to rule out other conditions such as GERD or ulcers.



    How to overcome a social phobia

     How to overcome a social phobia

    Some individuals have great difficulty communicating because of fear or anxiety problems. If you have this type of problem, you have a social phobia, also known as an anxiety disorder. There are several things you can do to better manage your daily interactions.

    Confronting Anxiety Disorders


    Confront your negative thoughts.

    Anxiety disorders can cause you to have a poor idea of yourself when you are in a social setting. You'll probably think you look like an idiot or that you're going to pick up a shovel. To overcome this, the first thing to do is to identify your thoughts as they go through your head. Knowing what causes your anxiety disorders can help you cope with them.
    When these thoughts come to you, don't think about them and say I'll be okay, I'm strong and talented and I won't make a fool of myself.

    Test your fear.

    After you have identified and confronted your thoughts, analyze the fear. Try to counterbalance negative thoughts with realistic, positive thoughts.
    Ask yourself questions about your negative thoughts. For example, ask yourself How do I know I'm going to miss my presentation? or What makes me think I'm going to make a mockery of myself? and then ask yourself, Will, I die if I miss it all? The logical answers to all of these questions are: no, you will not humiliate yourself and ruin everything, and even if you do, you are only a man, just like everyone else who is watching you. Even the best ones make mistakes.


    Stop making utopian predictions.

    A common mistake people make when dealing with social phobia is to make unrealistic and inaccurate predictions about the situation. You can't predict the future and if you try, you will only think of the worst-case scenario, which will not be far from a realistic analysis of the situation. This will only cause you unnecessary anxiety.

    • Remember that you have the opportunity to change your exaggerated thoughts. For example, if you are going to a party, focus on the fact that not all eyes will be on you.
    • Visualize yourself at the party having a relaxed conversation with everyone and enjoying yourself.

    Stop making utopian predictions. 


    Tell yourself that no one is judging you.

    Social phobias can result from thinking that everyone is judging you. If that's what you think, step back and understand that you are not the center of attention and if that's really the case, tell yourself that what they think is not as negative as what you think.

    • Don't try to guess what people are thinking. You can't read people's minds. Also, they don't see the same negative image you portray of yourself in your head.
    • Use social situations to change the negative ideas you have about yourself and practice not changing the way you think about what others say about you.

    Working on your fears

    Take it one step at a time

     Identify the top 10 situations that cause you to be anxious. Rank them in order of importance and, starting with the most manageable problem, try to deal with each stressful situation gradually.
    Wait until you are reasonably able to handle a situation before moving on to the next level. The goal is to overcome your anxiety, not increase it.

    • It may take time to deal with the problems on the list, which is normal. You may never get to number 10, but if you can already deal with 7 of the situations, your anxiety would be much less.
    • If you feel that you are having a hard time coping, contact a psychologist who can assist you while you deal with each situation on the list.

    Set achievable goals.

    Overcoming your anxiety entirely may seem like too much work. How will you know if you're okay? Putting yourself in situations is not enough. It may be good for a start, but after that, you need to practice more interaction. Set goals every time you go out. As you reach your goals, you will begin to see progress for yourself.

    • Hold small discussions with people you see often, including co-workers, employees, and others. There are tons of things you can talk about, including the weather, a meeting you attended earlier, or an event of some kind. Start by setting a goal to talk to one person each week. Then move on to a new person a day or even several people a day.
    • Set a goal to say something in a meeting or class each time. Don't worry about what others say. Focus on the fact that you've done it. This is called progress.
    • If you're in a group, challenge yourself to make at least three comments during the discussion.
    • Invite someone to dinner, whether it's a friend or a lover. Don't focus on the answer, just on the fact that you were confident and asked.
    • This will help you focus on the task and the goal, not on your nerves. The goal here is to take control of the situation. You have the ability to control what you ask, what you say, and what you do. Don't worry about others, as you cannot control them.
    •  You can even practice with a friend about what you will say or do in a situation.

    Interact in social situations


    Socialize even more.

    Although you may be terrified of getting into social situations, you should try to get involved instead. The more you avoid something, the more that thing controls you. The anxiety generated will increase until it becomes a phobia. The more you get used to something, the less power it has over you.

    • Try to familiarize yourself with the place. Anything you can't control can stress you out. Go to the city, to a restaurant or the gym. Take a walk and familiarize yourself with the place. Once you do, you'll feel more comfortable. Also, start focusing on your surroundings and there you can start making friends.
    • Have someone with you. You don't have to do this alone. Go to an event with a friend or family member. Start at the bottom of the ladder, take a gym class, attend a meet-and-greet group, or participate in a community program.

    Find a club or team that fits one of your interests.

    Being in the company of people who have the same interests as you can help you interact with them. With groups and clubs, you will have an environment in which to make friends and this can help you to calm your anxiety. It makes it easier for you to connect with others because you just can't blend in.

    Advice

    • Take it to step by step.
    • Be yourself.
    • Be positive.
    • You will fail. It happens to everyone. Don't be overwhelmed by failure and remember that you are learning. Think of ways to do better next time.
    • Surround yourself with good people. Opt for those who make you happy at the expense of those who just look interesting.
    • Make yourself comfortable. These people are only human and there are more than 7 billion others in the world.
    • There are social phobia groups. If there are in your community, take your courage, and visit one. There you will meet lovely people who will be really happy to meet you.

    Warnings

    • If someone doesn't like you, don't make a big deal out of it. It's not just people in life who like us.
    • Don't avoid things. Every time you avoid a situation, person, or event, you make your social phobia stronger. You'll feel proud of yourself later on and feel more confident in social situations. The more you avoid an embarrassing situation, the more unmanageable it becomes.
    • Don't lose heart. Be patient and persevering, because, in the end, the results will be worth all the work and courage it took to get through it.